1.19.2014

Psychoactive Plants in the Bible

     Christianity is based on accounts of Jesus and God in the Bible. The Bible includes various plants that are used often and deemed holy. Some of these plants are psychedelic while others have medical qualities. Both the new and old testament mention the use of these plants in religious purpose. Jesus used shamanic techniques to help establish a stable religion in the name of God.

Holy Anointing Oil
Leviticus 10:6 And Moses said to Aaron, and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, lest you die, and wrath come upon all the people. But let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which the Lord has kindled.7 You shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of meeting, lest you die, for the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you.” And they did according to the word of Moses. John 12:3 Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. Exodus 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head and anoint him.
Holy Anointing oil according to the bible
Pure myrrh, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
Sweet cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
Calamus, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
Cassia, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
Olive oil, one hin (3.7 Liters)
      The holy anointing oil is a potent psychedelic extract. The 18 kg of plant material that is extracted into 3.7 liters of olive oil yields a potent essential oil. The holy anointing oil is essentially an anxiolytic-hallucinogen.
Exact Replica of the Tabernacle Link

      The transdermal application of it led to its absorption and psychoactive effects, even in extremely low doses. The bible suggests anointing with a large amount of oil possibly to ensure a psychedelic response.

       These properties explain biblical quotes of the oil being upon you. The sedative and hallucinogenic effects are thus the lord. Essentially Leviticus 10:6 is saying that if you have a bad trip, you will have distress inside, equivalent to death.

      The rules of keeping your clothes on and intact as well as staying inside are given to prevent such a bad trip. If you get anxiety, others will too.

       Myrrh is a resin that is used widely in the bible. Myrrh contains the terpenes furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and curzarene which are Mu-opioid agonists.[11] This opioid receptor is the same one that morphine activates. This means that inhaling or absorbing myrrh incense can cause a drug reaction.
Flickr @ chrisdebruyn

       Calamus or sweet flag is a rhizome that has been widely used as a plant medicine. Calamus contains a cannabinoid allorestic modulator as well as other psychoactive phytochemicals.[3] These chemicals are highly bioactive and can diffuse through the skin upon contact.

      This plant is known to cause intoxications, but the chemical responsible is yet to be determined.[12] The holy anointing oil extract contains a potent amount of this plant.[15]

       Calamus contains a couple active chemicals. Beta-asarone is a sedative and tranquilizer present at 2,000 - 48,000 ppm. It has been suggested as a hallucinogen but hasn't been proven.[12] Isoeugenol is also a sedative being present at 228 - 12,510 ppm. Alpha-asarone is also a sedative present at 132 - 6,500 ppm. Elemicin is a strong hallucinogen present at 10 - 650 ppm. A minimum of 155 grams of calamus root is needed to produce an effect from Elemicin. Alpha-pinene is a perfume and sedative present at 280 ppm.[18]

Flickr @ Flavio
      Sweet cinnamon contains linalool as well as Methyl Chavicol. Methyl Chavicol has been shown to alter rats behavior in a similar manner to other hallucinogens.[16] Linalool acts as an anxiolytic.[17] Methyl chavicol has been reported as a hallucinogen but has not been proven.

      Cassia contains similar compounds as sweet cinnamon. Cassia contains a higher percentage of cinnamic aldehyde. Cassia's main difference from sweet cinnamon is the abundance of a compound called coumarin. When eaten, this compound would lower appetite and could cause liver damage.

       Olive oil is a perfect transdermal carrier for drugs due to its fatty acid content.[4] The amount of oil used in the holy anointing oil makes it extremely potent.

Holy Perfume
Exodus 30:34 And the Lord said unto Moses, “Take unto thee sweet spices: stacte and onycha and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense, of each shall there be a like weight. 37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make it for yourselves according to the composition thereof; it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord.
       Galbanum contains 3-pinene which is a gaba agonist. Inhalation would cause anti-anxiety effects which would cause similar effects as Xanax.
Flickr @ mamamusings
       Frankincense is an incense that contains a chemical called incensole acetate. It is a gaba agonist and BDNF inducer.[2][5][6] It causes a decrease in anxiety and has synergism with Galbanum.

God in the Burning Bush
Exodus 3:2 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.
    Acacia is a tree with bark that contains DMT and DMT derivatives. DMT is one of the strongest hallucinogens known to man. When combined with an MAOI chemical, DMT becomes highly orally active. Acacia is used widely in the bible as being part of the ark of the covenant as well as part of the tabernacle.
Photo by Mini Kamp

    Syrian Rue is a bush that contains potent MAOI chemicals. It grows in the area the bible takes place.

    The total dose that would be needed for moses to trip would be 6 grams of acacia wood and 3 grams of syrian rue.

    If moses had a drink such as wine that was stored in acacia wood barrels he would ingest a high enough dose of DMT. If he just ate a handful of syrian rue seeds within 30 minutes, effects would ensue.

Song of Songs 4:13-15
Your plants are an orchard of pomegranates with choice fruits, with henna and nardnard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with every kind of incense tree, with myrrh and aloes and all the finest spices.You are a garden fountain, a well of flowing water streaming down from Lebanon.
       Spikenard, also called nard, is an anxiolytic and nootropic. Jesus was anointed with a big jar of spikenard. Spikenard increases gaba as well as serotonin in the brain.[7][8] Spikenard is thus synergistic with many other sedatives in the bible.
Flickr @ Klearchos Kapoutsis
       Saffron is a spice derived from the crocus flower. It is the most expensive spice by weight. Its effects on the human body come at low doses. It is shown to be an anti-depressant in humans.[1] This is caused by saffron's effect on the gaba receptors.[13][9] These effects would be similar to taking an anxiety drug such as Xanax.

Manna
Exodus 16 14,31 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.
   
Flickr @ Kristieg
        Manna was a holy food that was white and brown, circle shaped, and would appear in the morning dew. The Israelites would live off it when traveling from village to village. Once they got near a village, it would disappear.

        Terrence Mckenna suggested that this was the exact description of psilocybin containing mushrooms. Magic mushrooms can cause hallucinations and emotional experiences. One study showed that mushrooms were considered by the users as one of their top 5 most spiritually significant events of their lives.[19]

Other Drug plants in the bible
Ecclesiastes 9:7 "Go, eat your food with gladness, and drink your wine with a joyful heart, for God has already approved what you do". 
       Wine contains alcohol which is currently the most commonly used intoxicant. Some biblical quotes claim drinking to be unholy while others suggest that it isn't wrong until it changes who you are.
Zechariah 1:10And the man that stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, “These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro throughout the earth.”
Flickr @ daveynin
        Myrtus communis contains anxiolytic effects.[10] In one study, the effects of the essential oil were stronger than the drug it was compared to.
1 Kings 19:5 And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree, behold, then an angel touched him, and said unto him, Arise and eat.
        Juniper fruit contains 530-9200 ppm alpha pinene which is a sedative. The fruit also contains limonene and myrcene which also act as sedatives.[14]
Lamentations 3:15 He hath filled me with bitterness, he hath made me drunken with wormwood.
       Wormwood is a plant that contains thujone. One of the main components of the drink absinthe. Too much can cause death.
Genesis 30:15 But she said to her, “Wasn’t it enough that you took away my husband? Will you take my son’s mandrakes too?” “Very well,” Rachel said, “he can sleep with you tonight in return for your son’s mandrakes.”
        Mandrake is a plant that contains atropine, scopolamine, apoatropine, and hyoscyamine which cause hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. If too much is ingested it can cause death.

Jesus healing people
Matthew 4:24 Then His fame went throughout all Syria; and they brought to Him all sick people who were afflicted with various diseases and torments, and those who were demon-possessed, epileptics, and paralytics; and He healed them.
Flickr @ johnragai
       Jesus healed with holy means. He healed the blind, possessed, epileptic, bleeding, paralyzed and many others. Much of this healing was used as a way to prove to the people that Jesus was in fact the son of god. Jesus used his holy anointing oil as well as his holy perfume to achieve some healing traits.

       Epileptic people were easily healed by a dose of either the holy perfume or the holy anointing oil. The sedatives contained in them would cause their neurons to decrease excitation.

       The blind people were somewhat healed by the hallucinogenic nature of the holy anointing oil. Psychedelic effects can cause people to see things with their eyes even if they are blind. Other healing aspects could be due to the hallucinogenic effects the holy anointing oil caused.

Conclusion
         Jesus had powers no other man had. Using plant derived drugs was one of his methods to heal and perform miracles. Jesus became accepted as the son of god due to his reputation of his special psychedelic powers.

Sources:
[1] Shahin Akhondzadeh, Hasan Fallah-Pour, Khosro Afkham, Amir-Hossein, Jamshidi, & Farahnaz Khalighi (2004). Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression BMC Complement Altern Med. DOI: PMC517724
[2] Moussaieff A, Rimmerman N, Bregman T, Straiker A, Felder CC, Shoham S, Kashman Y, Huang SM, Lee H, Shohami E, Mackie K, Caterina MJ, Walker JM, Fride E, & Mechoulam R (2008). Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 22 (8), 3024-34 PMID: 18492727
[3] Björnstad K, Helander A, Hultén P, & Beck O (2009). Bioanalytical investigation of asarone in connection with Acorus calamus oil intoxications. Journal of analytical toxicology, 33 (9), 604-9 PMID: 20040135
[4] Hussain A, Khan GM, Jan SU, Shah S, Shah K, Akhlaq M, Rahim N, Nawaz A, & Wahab A (2012). Effect of olive oil on transdermal penetration of flurbiprofen from topical gel as enhancer. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 25 (2), 365-9 PMID: 22459463
[5]http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/dpl-vol4-iss4/DPL-2012-4-4-1308-1326.pdf
[6]http://jop.sagepub.com/content/26/12/1584.short
[7]https://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2006-959429
[8]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410500423X
[9]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711306000651
[10]http://www.omicsonline.org/2155-9562/2155-9562-S1.015-018.pdf
[11]https://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2000-8532
[12]http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10575630108041315#.UtMt6p7PtcA(beta asaron to asaronaldehyde from peppered food(enzyme reverse reaction?))
[13]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S094471130800113X
[14]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587690
[15]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0733862707000247
[16]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.1583/abstract
[17]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711309002578
[18]http://www.ars-grin.gov/
[19]http://csp.org/psilocybin/Hopkins-CSP-Psilocybin2006.pdf

Follow by Email