4.03.2014

Diet and the Biological Differences between Races

     Many groups of people have developed in isolated regions around the earth. These groups have evolved according to their environment. For example, Dark skinned people evolved to protect against vitamin B9 deficiency.[19]

    For thousands of years, the cultures of different races ate the same native food and had their own way of life. The effect the food caused wasn't immediate, it eventually got into the genes via epigenetics.
Flickr @ sarit_arora
     These hormonal changes caused them to change over time. Changes in hormones not only affects muscle; it affects blood flow, cognition, behavior, risk factors, skin appearance, health, and just about every visible part of your body.[24] Diet combined with random genetic mutations caused the diversification of human races on earth.

Eastern Diet
    There are many traditionally eaten foods which are native to Asia that affect the human body. There is a tendency for people in eastern countries to be slightly shorter than other countries due to lower IGF-1 levels.[7] There has also been a tendency for reduced prostate cancer risk in asian men due to lower aggravating androgens. Green tea, rice, soy, ginseng, and other herbs like star anise affect human hormones and could be the cause.

Flickr @ lyniute
    A green tea anti-oxidant called EGCG has been shown to lower testosterone, DHT, estrogen, IGF-1 and cholesterol.[5] [8] [11] Lowering these hormones causes major changes to the individual over time.

    Rice and Soy contain chemicals called phytoestrogens. They act as both estrogen blockers and activators. In females, certain tissues are inhibited while others are activated. [9][12]

   Star anise, and many other chinese medicine herbs are highly estrogenic. [13]

    Another important spice is turmeric. In India this is a key component of their diet. The main active chemical in turmeric is called curcumin. It has been shown to decrease growth factors as well as decrease DHT levels, the more potent version of testosterone, and possibly decrease testosterone levels too. [14][3][4]

Flickr @ peddhapati
   Peppercorns are native to the Indian area. A chemical in peppercorns called piperine has been shown to increase curcumin absorption by nearly 2000% according to one study.[20]

   Apples contain a chemical called ursolic acid. This chemical increases muscle mass and stimulates bone formation. [23]

    Fresh onions boost testosterone.[17] Onions are similar to turmeric in the fact that both protect testes.

    Cows milk increases igf-1 and is a source of estrogen.[18]

Western Diet
    The native americans were influenced greatly by their environment. Many of the native plants affect hormones just as eastern plants do. Their lack of interaction with alcohol causes them to be a high risk for alcoholism.

   Tomatoes have been important to the Americas (especially the Aztecs) for thousands of years. One chemical in them called lycopene decreases IGF-1's effects. [15] [16] This will lower bone growth as well as inhibit growth factors.

    The Cacao fruit was so common it was used as a form of currency. Cocoa contains the same chemical as green tea's EGCG. It decreases testosterone, DHT, Estrogen, IGF-1, and cholesterol. Chocolate also contains a chemical called theobromine. This chemical has been shown to lower testes weight by causing prostate cells to hypertrophy.[22]
Flickr @ lacatholique
    Peppers and other spicy foods increase epinephrine due to a chemical called capsaicin. This stress hormone causes a wide range of effects on the body and can contribute to ones body composition. Stress hormones are often notorious for decreasing overall bone growth.

Conclusion
     Every food affects your hormones to a small degree, with certain ones making a big impact. These chemicals are the plants self defense against smaller animals. These plants might not have a noticeable effect at first but over time and especially over thousands of years, little amounts add up. In the future, the epigenetic research will come out to further support this theory.


Studies
[1]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026049501738905 (SHBG African)
[2]http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/141/8/732.short (prostate cancer asian)
[3]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X10002994
[4]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/biof.1041/abstract;jsessionid=1B8007DA00C9154E3FF15F2090BEF636.f02t03
[5]http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/endo.141.3.7368
[6]https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4675
[7]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_height
[8]Liao S, & Hiipakka RA (1995). Selective inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 214 (3), 833-8 PMID: 7575552 [9]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096007600600197X
[10]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531798001468
[11]Figueiroa MS, César Vieira JS, Leite DS, Filho RC, Ferreira F, Gouveia PS, Udrisar DP, & Wanderley MI (2009). Green tea polyphenols inhibit testosterone production in rat Leydig cells. Asian journal of andrology, 11 (3), 362-70 PMID: 19330017
[12]http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/endo-103-5-1860
[13]Albert-Puleo M (1980). Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2 (4), 337-44 PMID: 6999244
[14]Liao S, Lin J, Dang MT, Zhang H, Kao YH, Fukuchi J, & Hiipakka RA (2001). Growth suppression of hamster flank organs by topical application of catechins, alizarin, curcumin, and myristoleic acid. Archives of dermatological research, 293 (4), 200-5 PMID: 11380153 [15]http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/29/4/816.full
[16]http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/86/5/1456.full
[17]Khaki A, Fathiazad F, Nouri M, Khaki AA, Khamenehi HJ, & Hamadeh M (2009). Evaluation of androgenic activity of allium cepa on spermatogenesis in the rat. Folia morphologica, 68 (1), 45-51 PMID: 19384830
[18]http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v58/n9/abs/1601948a.html
[19]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_skin
[20]Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, & Srinivas PS (1998). Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta medica, 64 (4), 353-6 PMID: 9619120
[21]Kawada T, Sakabe S, Watanabe T, Yamamoto M, & Iwai K (1988). Some pungent principles of spices cause the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamine in anesthetized rats. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, N.Y.), 188 (2), 229-33 PMID: 3375268
[22]Friedman L, Weinberger MA, Farber TM, Moreland FM, Peters EL, Gilmore CE, & Khan MA (1979). Testicular atrophy and impaired spermatogenesis in rats fed high levels of the methylxanthines caffeine, theobromine, or theophylline. Journal of environmental pathology and toxicology, 2 (3), 687-706 PMID: 422930
[23]Lee SU, Park SJ, Kwak HB, Oh J, Min YK, & Kim SH (2008). Anabolic activity of ursolic acid in bone: Stimulating osteoblast differentiation in vitro and inducing new bone formation in vivo. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society, 58 (5-6), 290-6 PMID: 18822379
[24]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone
[25]http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/14756369009040741 (aromatase inhibitor)
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2.23.2014

The Evolution of Societal Norms

     Societal norms form because societies benefit from them over time. Societies, like organisms, evolve certain characteristics. Norms can co-evolve with human evolution or simply evolve separately.

    Societal norms evolve separate from an organism's evolution because norms affect behavior between organisms rather than just the organism itself. With that said, certain organism traits can predispose certain norm behavior.
Flickr @ mikeyp2000
Being mean is being nice:
      Making fun of people or criticizing others is a good thing for society. It is one way people learn social norms. Most people consider being made fun of as the "hard" way to learn.

    Bullying is very different than being mean. Bullying is a repeated expression of self pain or suffering. Bullying is an attempt to correct the bullies own self. This attempt of course is very destructive and counter productive.

Societal Norms:
          Most people see social norms everyday multiple times. In fact norms are even why your diet is the way it is. You are conditioned to normal behavior.[4]
Flickr @ tamaki

          Illness specific norms are meant to prevent sickness. One example is covering your nose and mouth while sneezing. If you don't cover your nose while sneezing, virus' and bacteria easily become airborne.

          Another norm is eating with utensils verses your hands. This has evolved to prevent exposure to parasites under your fingernails.[1]

Aggression and mental disorders:
         Mental disorder specific norms are meant to expose to normal people the presence of a psychological instability in another person. This would prevent someone from being involved with someone that isn't mentally stable. These norms even expose rage type behavior. The societal rules are so numerous, that someone not mentally stable is bound to break at least one.

         If you think in your gut that something isn't right with someone, it's due to your learned instinct of societal norms.
Flickr @ MDGovpics
         Antisocial disorder specific norms are meant to reveal to normal people a lack of social exposure. The anti social life has many negative effects. One example is the lack of speed with understanding norms. One study showed anti-social people are delayed at addressing social norms. [5]

        Antisocial behavior could also be an indicator to commit crimes. One study showed that up to 80% of people incarcerated are antisocial.[3] Another study showed that antisocial behavior persists throughout ones life. [2]

Weird People:
         Weird people are those at which no societal evolution has occurred. People are often seen as weird for doing things other people haven't heard of or aren't familiar with. Thus, there hasn't been enough time for evolution to determine whether they are good or bad and are simply labeled as weird. Some may be averse to these people while others are more of risk takers.

New and old Norms:
Flickr @ mlibrarianus
         People made certain behaviors right and others wrong as a way to push away people incapable of it.

        People unable to behave normally are often people who are not beneficial to human race for many reasons such as cannabilisim, they are angry/mean, lack of brain matter or ability.

       New norms have evolved due to the presence of technology. Over-posting on facebook is a norm that has evolved because those which do tend to be narcissistic.[7]

    This post is not a plea to end such behavioral organization. This post only condones it's protective effects. Essentially this norm structure kills our free will.

Links:
[1] D. A. Zaglool, Y. A. Khodari,1 R. A. M. Othman, and M. U. Farooq2 (2011). Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers in a tertiary care hospital Niger Med J.
[2] Loeber R (1982). The stability of antisocial and delinquent child behavior: a review. Child development, 53 (6), 1431-46 PMID: 6756808
[3] Ogloff JR (2006). Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, 40 (6-7), 519-28 PMID: 16756576 [4]http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/png/ajhb/2014/00000038/00000001/art00015 (norms influence diet)
[5]http://scan.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/01/19/scan.nsu003.short (anti social people know social norms, just not very fast)
[6]http://jtp.sagepub.com/content/18/4/434.short(socially acceptable actions are only possible)
[7]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563211000379

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1.19.2014

Psychoactive Plants in the Bible

     Christianity is based on accounts of Jesus and God in the Bible. The Bible includes various plants that are used often and deemed holy. Some of these plants are psychedelic while others have medical qualities. Both the new and old testament mention the use of these plants in religious purpose. Jesus used shamanic techniques to help establish a stable religion in the name of God.

Holy Anointing Oil
Leviticus 10:6 And Moses said to Aaron, and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, lest you die, and wrath come upon all the people. But let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which the Lord has kindled.7 You shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of meeting, lest you die, for the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you.” And they did according to the word of Moses. John 12:3 Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment. Exodus 29:7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head and anoint him.
Holy Anointing oil according to the bible
Pure myrrh, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
Sweet cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
Calamus, 250 shekels (about 3 kg)
Cassia, 500 shekels (about 6 kg)
Olive oil, one hin (3.7 Liters)
      The holy anointing oil is a potent psychedelic extract. The 18 kg of plant material that is extracted into 3.7 liters of olive oil yields a potent essential oil. The holy anointing oil is essentially an anxiolytic-hallucinogen.
Exact Replica of the Tabernacle Link

      The transdermal application of it led to its absorption and psychoactive effects, even in extremely low doses. The bible suggests anointing with a large amount of oil possibly to ensure a psychedelic response.

       These properties explain biblical quotes of the oil being upon you. The sedative and hallucinogenic effects are thus the lord. Essentially Leviticus 10:6 is saying that if you have a bad trip, you will have distress inside, equivalent to death.

      The rules of keeping your clothes on and intact as well as staying inside are given to prevent such a bad trip. If you get anxiety, others will too.

       Myrrh is a resin that is used widely in the bible. Myrrh contains the terpenes furanoeudesma-1,3-diene and curzarene which are Mu-opioid agonists.[11] This opioid receptor is the same one that morphine activates. This means that inhaling or absorbing myrrh incense can cause a drug reaction.
Flickr @ chrisdebruyn

       Calamus or sweet flag is a rhizome that has been widely used as a plant medicine. Calamus contains a cannabinoid allorestic modulator as well as other psychoactive phytochemicals.[3] These chemicals are highly bioactive and can diffuse through the skin upon contact.

      This plant is known to cause intoxications, but the chemical responsible is yet to be determined.[12] The holy anointing oil extract contains a potent amount of this plant.[15]

       Calamus contains a couple active chemicals. Beta-asarone is a sedative and tranquilizer present at 2,000 - 48,000 ppm. It has been suggested as a hallucinogen but hasn't been proven.[12] Isoeugenol is also a sedative being present at 228 - 12,510 ppm. Alpha-asarone is also a sedative present at 132 - 6,500 ppm. Elemicin is a strong hallucinogen present at 10 - 650 ppm. A minimum of 155 grams of calamus root is needed to produce an effect from Elemicin. Alpha-pinene is a perfume and sedative present at 280 ppm.[18]

Flickr @ Flavio
      Sweet cinnamon contains linalool as well as Methyl Chavicol. Methyl Chavicol has been shown to alter rats behavior in a similar manner to other hallucinogens.[16] Linalool acts as an anxiolytic.[17] Methyl chavicol has been reported as a hallucinogen but has not been proven.

      Cassia contains similar compounds as sweet cinnamon. Cassia contains a higher percentage of cinnamic aldehyde. Cassia's main difference from sweet cinnamon is the abundance of a compound called coumarin. When eaten, this compound would lower appetite and could cause liver damage.

       Olive oil is a perfect transdermal carrier for drugs due to its fatty acid content.[4] The amount of oil used in the holy anointing oil makes it extremely potent.

Holy Perfume
Exodus 30:34 And the Lord said unto Moses, “Take unto thee sweet spices: stacte and onycha and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense, of each shall there be a like weight. 37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make it for yourselves according to the composition thereof; it shall be unto thee holy for the Lord.
       Galbanum contains 3-pinene which is a gaba agonist. Inhalation would cause anti-anxiety effects which would cause similar effects as Xanax.
Flickr @ mamamusings
       Frankincense is an incense that contains a chemical called incensole acetate. It is a gaba agonist and BDNF inducer.[2][5][6] It causes a decrease in anxiety and has synergism with Galbanum.

God in the Burning Bush
Exodus 3:2 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.
    Acacia is a tree with bark that contains DMT and DMT derivatives. DMT is one of the strongest hallucinogens known to man. When combined with an MAOI chemical, DMT becomes highly orally active. Acacia is used widely in the bible as being part of the ark of the covenant as well as part of the tabernacle.
Photo by Mini Kamp

    Syrian Rue is a bush that contains potent MAOI chemicals. It grows in the area the bible takes place.

    The total dose that would be needed for moses to trip would be 6 grams of acacia wood and 3 grams of syrian rue.

    If moses had a drink such as wine that was stored in acacia wood barrels he would ingest a high enough dose of DMT. If he just ate a handful of syrian rue seeds within 30 minutes, effects would ensue.

Song of Songs 4:13-15
Your plants are an orchard of pomegranates with choice fruits, with henna and nardnard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with every kind of incense tree, with myrrh and aloes and all the finest spices.You are a garden fountain, a well of flowing water streaming down from Lebanon.
       Spikenard, also called nard, is an anxiolytic and nootropic. Jesus was anointed with a big jar of spikenard. Spikenard increases gaba as well as serotonin in the brain.[7][8] Spikenard is thus synergistic with many other sedatives in the bible.
Flickr @ Klearchos Kapoutsis
       Saffron is a spice derived from the crocus flower. It is the most expensive spice by weight. Its effects on the human body come at low doses. It is shown to be an anti-depressant in humans.[1] This is caused by saffron's effect on the gaba receptors.[13][9] These effects would be similar to taking an anxiety drug such as Xanax.

Manna
Exodus 16 14,31 And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.
   
Flickr @ Kristieg
        Manna was a holy food that was white and brown, circle shaped, and would appear in the morning dew. The Israelites would live off it when traveling from village to village. Once they got near a village, it would disappear.

        Terrence Mckenna suggested that this was the exact description of psilocybin containing mushrooms. Magic mushrooms can cause hallucinations and emotional experiences. One study showed that mushrooms were considered by the users as one of their top 5 most spiritually significant events of their lives.[19]

Other Drug plants in the bible
Ecclesiastes 9:7 "Go, eat your food with gladness, and drink your wine with a joyful heart, for God has already approved what you do". 
       Wine contains alcohol which is currently the most commonly used intoxicant. Some biblical quotes claim drinking to be unholy while others suggest that it isn't wrong until it changes who you are.
Zechariah 1:10And the man that stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, “These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro throughout the earth.”
Flickr @ daveynin
        Myrtus communis contains anxiolytic effects.[10] In one study, the effects of the essential oil were stronger than the drug it was compared to.
1 Kings 19:5 And as he lay and slept under a juniper tree, behold, then an angel touched him, and said unto him, Arise and eat.
        Juniper fruit contains 530-9200 ppm alpha pinene which is a sedative. The fruit also contains limonene and myrcene which also act as sedatives.[14]
Lamentations 3:15 He hath filled me with bitterness, he hath made me drunken with wormwood.
       Wormwood is a plant that contains thujone. One of the main components of the drink absinthe. Too much can cause death.
Genesis 30:15 But she said to her, “Wasn’t it enough that you took away my husband? Will you take my son’s mandrakes too?” “Very well,” Rachel said, “he can sleep with you tonight in return for your son’s mandrakes.”
        Mandrake is a plant that contains atropine, scopolamine, apoatropine, and hyoscyamine which cause hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. If too much is ingested it can cause death.

Jesus healing people
Matthew 4:24 Then His fame went throughout all Syria; and they brought to Him all sick people who were afflicted with various diseases and torments, and those who were demon-possessed, epileptics, and paralytics; and He healed them.
Flickr @ johnragai
       Jesus healed with holy means. He healed the blind, possessed, epileptic, bleeding, paralyzed and many others. Much of this healing was used as a way to prove to the people that Jesus was in fact the son of god. Jesus used his holy anointing oil as well as his holy perfume to achieve some healing traits.

       Epileptic people were easily healed by a dose of either the holy perfume or the holy anointing oil. The sedatives contained in them would cause their neurons to decrease excitation.

       The blind people were somewhat healed by the hallucinogenic nature of the holy anointing oil. Psychedelic effects can cause people to see things with their eyes even if they are blind. Other healing aspects could be due to the hallucinogenic effects the holy anointing oil caused.

Conclusion
         Jesus had powers no other man had. Using plant derived drugs was one of his methods to heal and perform miracles. Jesus became accepted as the son of god due to his reputation of his special psychedelic powers.

Sources:
[1] Shahin Akhondzadeh, Hasan Fallah-Pour, Khosro Afkham, Amir-Hossein, Jamshidi, & Farahnaz Khalighi (2004). Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression BMC Complement Altern Med. DOI: PMC517724
[2] Moussaieff A, Rimmerman N, Bregman T, Straiker A, Felder CC, Shoham S, Kashman Y, Huang SM, Lee H, Shohami E, Mackie K, Caterina MJ, Walker JM, Fride E, & Mechoulam R (2008). Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 22 (8), 3024-34 PMID: 18492727
[3] Björnstad K, Helander A, Hultén P, & Beck O (2009). Bioanalytical investigation of asarone in connection with Acorus calamus oil intoxications. Journal of analytical toxicology, 33 (9), 604-9 PMID: 20040135
[4] Hussain A, Khan GM, Jan SU, Shah S, Shah K, Akhlaq M, Rahim N, Nawaz A, & Wahab A (2012). Effect of olive oil on transdermal penetration of flurbiprofen from topical gel as enhancer. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 25 (2), 365-9 PMID: 22459463
[5]http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/dpl-vol4-iss4/DPL-2012-4-4-1308-1326.pdf
[6]http://jop.sagepub.com/content/26/12/1584.short
[7]https://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2006-959429
[8]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887410500423X
[9]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711306000651
[10]http://www.omicsonline.org/2155-9562/2155-9562-S1.015-018.pdf
[11]https://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2000-8532
[12]http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10575630108041315#.UtMt6p7PtcA(beta asaron to asaronaldehyde from peppered food(enzyme reverse reaction?))
[13]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S094471130800113X
[14]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587690
[15]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0733862707000247
[16]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.1583/abstract
[17]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711309002578
[18]http://www.ars-grin.gov/
[19]http://csp.org/psilocybin/Hopkins-CSP-Psilocybin2006.pdf
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9.29.2013

The Science of Why Girls Love flowers

     Social norms such as giving a girl flowers to show love have evolved for a scientific reason. The origin of this practice is not quite a romance story, rather a specific drug reaction in the brain and body.

Flickr @ Flower's.Lover
   Societies evolve certain behaviors through time to benefit from them. Most people see social norms everyday multiple times.

     Illness specific norms are meant to prevent sickness like covering your nose and mouth while sneezing as well as eating with utensils verses with your hands for the reason to prevent exposure to parasites under your fingernails.

     The societal norms of giving flowers for romance or remembrance have evolved to benefit the stability of the individual people.

Floural essence:
     Many flowers contain chemicals called Prolyl Endopeptidase inhibitors. The function of these chemicals could be to attract pollinating organisms like bees. They are in the floral mist so they get absorbed into your body when sniffed. Prolyl Endopeptidase inhibitors increase Oxytocin, α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone,and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

      Oxytocin will induce "love" and memory. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is an activator of mental sexual arousal. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is an activator of testosterone production and thus physical sexual arousal.

      The effects of these chemicals are anti-depressant in general. The inhibiting strength of these chemicals are significantly more than dietary sources of these inhibitors, even compared to the herbal anti-depressant rhidolia rosea.[1]
Flickr @ k790i
      A chemical in the rose plant has been shown to be the strongest known natural inhibitior.[1] Another chemical in the chrysanthemum plant is also another one of the strongest inhibitors. [1]

      Other chemicals identified as inhibitors that belong to a variety of plants include geraniin, corilagin, elaeocarpusin, linderene acetate, euphorscopin, geraniin, helioscopin B, helioscopinin A, helioscopinin B, jolkinin, macranganin, rugosin E, supinanin, and teracatain.

     Roses, chinese peony, salvia deserta, crysanthunum, geranium species and many others contain these potent chemicals.

Origin:
Flickr @ epsos
     Hunter gathers collected a variety of flowers when looking for food. Women most likely were the first to "become in love with flowers" because they can smell statistically better and were less likely to hunt.

     Their exposure had them under the effects of the Prolyl Endopeptisase inhibitors. In addition to effects like oxytocin boost, the act of smelling pleasant things boosts dopamine release.

    The evolutionary benefits of smelling these flowers include increased reproduction from increased oxytocin,sexual arousal, and testosterone as well as decreased cortisol or stress.

    This benefit of lower stress is perfect for a time like death when stress is very high. Through time, women would have a dopamine flush from the sight of them, causing them to go up and smell it. The women who didn't evolve this way, became a minority due to them not experiencing the benefits.

    This flower effect is present even in a modern world like in a church, at a funeral, or on a date. When a guy gives the girl flowers her body automatically responds to this action like smelling the flowers due to evolution.
Flickr @ stephanridgway
    When someone dies and flowers are given to the deceased, their stress is reduced and feelings improved. A reduction in stress leads to less inflammation and disease and thus adaptation.

History:
Photo Courtesy Gideon Pisanty
    12,000 years ago some humans buried two humans in a bed with flowers. A plant called Judean Sage was found at the site where it was used as a bedding. The site where it was found had plenty of Judean sage growing.

Judean Sage contains a prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor called rosmaric acid.[3] This is the oldest evidence of a flower with a prolyl endopeptidase being used in human tradition.[2] The amount of flowers was enough to be aromatic at a distance.

   The use of the plants werent used to preserve the body or fuel a fire, the purpose is clear. The people who buried them experienced the anti depressant and hormonal benefits.

Photo courtesy E. Gerstein
  


Sources:
[1] Lee SH, Jun M, Choi JY, Yang EJ, Hur JM, Bae K, Seong YH, Huh TL, & Song KS (2007). Plant phenolics as prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors. Archives of pharmacal research, 30 (7), 827-33 PMID: 17703733

[2]Orhan IE (2012). Current concepts on selected plant secondary metabolites with promising inhibitory effects against enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease. Current medicinal chemistry, 19 (14), 2252-61 PMID: 22414107

[3]Böszörményi A, Héthelyi E, Farkas A, Horváth G, Papp N, Lemberkovics E, & Szoke E (2009). Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57 (11), 4663-7 PMID: 19449812

[4]http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/317/3/1143.full

[5]http://www.npr.org/2013/07/02/198061142/in-israel-unearthing-a-bed-of-flowers-for-eternal-rest

[6]http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-205_162-57339843/77000-year-old-bed-unearthed/

[7]Kobayashi W, Miyase T, Sano M, Umehara K, Warashina T, & Noguchi H (2002). Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors from the roots of Lindera strychnifolia F. Vill. Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 25 (8), 1049-52 PMID: 12186408
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3.19.2013

The Evolution Of Religion- Creation

     The First Religion was created by genetically modern humans. Religion as we know it emerged 42,000 years ago in Germany. Sexual Strength (Lion-Man) and Fertility (Venus) Gods were created because of flutes and plants in the area.

      The Religion benefited the society so they maintained the belief. Religions tend to evolve based on their ability to benefit the society. Please read my intro post: Religious Evolution and Adaptation Link.

Flickr @ edenpictures
     Societies in ancient human groups became quite civilized when modern humans genetically developed out of archaic humans around 200,000 years ago. Culture in these societies started to develop religious precursors. Religious precursors are activities that can form into religious rituals(and beliefs), but don't necessarily have to be religious(a god or supernatural being).

     These precursors are more society based and are not like biological precursors like Pareidolia and Vocal Acrobatics.

Religious Precursors
     Intentional burial of stone tools and gifts in a grave reduced the possibility of losing the method and technology of the item by forcing the creation of more of the specific item.

     Human burial is a religious precursor because it is common for a few other animals to bury their dead like elephants, and they do not exhibit religious behavior(possibly secular though).

     Research has found that recycling stone tools was common.[2] In addition, the recycled stone tools "were used repeatedly over a long period of time".[3]

     An example of this benefit has been found in Blombos Cave from 75,000 years ago. A technologically advanced stone tool called a Pressure Flaked stone, is better than other tools because its precisely sized tip and edge. In the evolution of stone tools, this method was the most "modern".

     This cave has been found to have no evidence of human burial besides a few scattered human teeth. After these people left the cave(we know after a long time due to artifacts) they lost the technology of pressure flaked tools. This technology wasn't discovered to exist until 50,000 years later.

    These activities tended to stick with the culture because a culture that did have these benefits was more likely to survive. Random activities that didn't benefit the culture would have less of a chance of being spread from generation to generation, and the activities would eventually die out.

Lone Valley- Origin of all religion
     45,000-42,000 years ago a group of genetically modern humans roamed into a region of south Germany called the lone valley(or swabian alb). These humans were anatomically able to speak like humans today. For around 50,000 years (atleast) before this, neanderthals dominated this area only. This area potentially became a ground for interaction between the two species.

     The Lone Valley is a forested area full of complex house looking caves often less than a mile apart from each other and all located just above a grassy stream. These caves all had a protruding top that made it highly visible.
A 3 mile stretch of caves in the lone valley region

     A recent Archaeological review of this small area suggests the cave group had higher human populations and stayed longer than other sites before it.[1] This means this area was like a prehistoric "settlement". Every cave has been found to have evidence of human habitation around this time. They would go to hunt and bring back the kill for generations.

     The population was high enough that not everyone had to go to hunt, and many suggest the women stayed behind due to their lower levels of testosterone. They would often roam nearby the caves and look for vegetation to eat.

Nootropic plants
Flickr @ blumenbiene
     A plant called Leucojum vernum (Spring Snowflake) is native to the Lone Valley area. It grows extremely dense in the spring; every step would crush a couple. Even today according to google maps, within a mile of Hohle Fels, a thick and luscious plot of them is thriving.

     This plant contains a chemical (in great quantities) called galantamine that boosts memory by many mechanisms. One of these pathways include the increase of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation.

      This results in higher levels of dopamine.[4] A study on religious belief showed that when dopamine was given to non religious believing individuals they noticed faces that weren't there at the same rate as religious people.

     This effect could easily be boosted when administered to a human from 43,000 years ago. Today, Galantamine is used as a prescription drug for Alzheimers.

     A neanderthal tooth has been found to provide the first evidence of medicinal plant consumption around 40,000 years ago[6]The combination of increases in acetylcholine and dopamine makes this plant a perfect drug that could help humans make the connection between things and religion.

Primitive Flutes
     The most recent Radio-carbon dating in 2013 suggested ~42,000 years ago, humans living in this area carved flutes from bird bones and ivory. This is the earliest evidence of flutes in the world.
Earliest flute found in Geißenklösterle
     Ivory and antlers both have similar properties. Deer Velvet has been in chinese medicine for thousands of years and still is today. Studies have shown that oral consumption of antlers has extremely little or no effect, while injection or sublingual has significant effects. These effects include higher levels of energy and sexuality. The mechanism of this effect is likely from both its MAOI effects on brain concentrations, and a hormone present in all bones called osteocalcin which has been found to improve fertility.

Flickr @ Vasenka
     When humans made these flutes and played them, the act of blowing was forcing them to absorb the ingredients sublingually, as repeated playing increases saliva production. Eating bone marrow was common, but this never gave an effect like sublingual absorption through the mucus membrane, because stomach acids destroyed the active ingredients before absorption.

     In addition to chemically aphrodisiac properties, music from a flute seems to increase sexual desire and fertility in the brain by itself. My Post The biological Evolution of Music explains how this too helped spread this religion. Perhaps music co evolved with religion due to this idea, kinda like how humans release hunger hormones before eating,but more research would be needed to tell for sure.

Creation of Gods
     The fact that these humans had to play their flutes and not just eat them, gave them the idea that something else besides the antler was getting their sexual levels up and rewarding them with sexual pleasure; to them it was a god of sexual strength (Lion-Man God).

     Chemicals in the flutes aswell as the playing of music would also increase fertility. After they started playing music, more babies were produced. To them, singing a flute would please the god. This made them think something similar to the lion-man god was making them have more babies. This god of "fertility" was venus.
Lion Man Found at Hohlenstein-Stadel
     Lion-Man was a god of sexual strength. He symbolically was as strong as a lion. He gave people their sexual strength. He was also the oldest carving ever found at ~42,000 years ago. Every carving of him was made out of ivory. Evidence of him has been found 5 times over a span of a thousand years in the lone valley.


Venus Found at Hohle Fels
     Venus was a god of fertility. Carvings were of different materials including the very first carving using ceramic material,but the first was used with ivory. Evidence of her has been found for ages in the form of Venus figurines.


Geißenklösterle Cave
     In Geißenklösterle cave, deer and mammoths (with ivory) were the main fauna present. A Carving of a special man very similar to the lion man (but unsure) called adorant was found in this cave. Two flutes have also been found from ~42,000 years ago. One was made from ivory and one was made from mute swan bone.

Gross Grote
     This site has evidence of human occupation, but not evidence of human processing of animal meat. This suggests the inhabitants ate else where.


Hohle Fels Cave
Lion Man from Hohle fels
     A couple flutes were found in this cave. Also, two sculptures of the god of sexuality(Lion-Man God) were found. One was a full bodied lion man figurine, and another was of the lion mans head.

     A carving of a mute swan flying was also found, proving that people were living in Hohle Fels and Geißenklösterle at the same time. The mute swan is special in its flight in that it looks like it is running on water before it achieves flight. This may have given the humans ideas that this bird is special and possibly god like. Its an unusual bird that doesn't really sing, hence the name mute bird.

      The female version of the god of sexuality(Venus) called the Venus of Hohle Fels was also found. This one could be worn around a necklace.
Lion Man's head from Hohle fels

     So far, flutes have only been found in Hohle Fels and Geißenklösterle. I predict evidence will appear in the other caves soon, because the discovery in hohle fels was in 2008 and the discovery in Geißenklösterle was 2012.




Passage to Hohlenstein-Stadel
     After a lengthy stay at the lone valley cave system, animals in the surrounding started to run dry. We know this for two reasons. We know deer were the main animal they would eat because of the bones they left behind. After they left, deer wasn't very common.[7] We also know this because at brillenhohle there was cannibalism.

     The Lone Valley group had to trek to another area. They would have to follow the stream to have access to water along the trip. The exact trip they took is unknown and it is unknown the duration of their stops,but we know their final destination along the stream. After 20 miles of traveling along the stream, they made it to Hohlenstein-Stadel.

     The cave complex contains three caves each about a mile apart along a stream  .
A 3 mile stretch of caves

Hohlenstein-stadel
    In this cave, the biggest and most detailed lion man god sculpture was found. As of 2013, It was dated at ~40,000 years ago. This site also seemed to have the most activity in the area. Art of other animals began to develop in the area.

Chewed Lion Man
Vogelherd
     A highly degraded lion man god sculpture was found in this cave. Also a head of the lion man god nearly identical to the lion man sculpture in hohlenstein was found in vogelherd. The Radio-carbon dating for these seem similar to the discoveries in hohlenstein stadel.






Conclusion
     Religious precursors can form simply through hallucinations or creative thinking, But these precursors will never become a religion that will spread past a few people. This is because believing in random things will not benefit the society as true religions do. Religions evolve and survive because they acquire traits that improve the society to different degrees.

     This primitive religion allowed greater survival of the group in south germany. The heightened reproduction improved their numbers and strength.

     This religion may have traveled 600 miles south west to Isturitz, Oxocelhaya and Erberua Caves where 15+ ivory flutes and a lion head has been found.[8] This site is still under work,but this shows the possible spread of the religion.
Flutes found in Isturitz

      In addition, The kostenki-avdeevo culture which came about around 8,000 years after the lone valley culture was found to have made more than 60 venus carvings.The Kostenki-Avdeevo culture even made the sculptures on necklaces just like the venus at Hohle fels. There is a slight route correlation of some venus findings that lead to russia, which could support the idea of this spread.

Additional Information

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Human_language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Caucasian_languages

There are Theories of the way proto language around 40,000 years ago sounded like. Venus was simply putʼ ert. This is a crude theory and mainly just fun to toy with.

Videos:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHy9FOblt7Y (Flute playing on disputed ancient flute)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=313rGMfWnB8 (bochsteinloch cave)



Sources:
[0] WU Fei-fei,JIN Li-ji,LI Xiao-yu,LI Hua-qiang,CAO Zhen-hui,YOU Jian-song,XU Yong-ping(Ministry of Education Center for Food Safety of Animal Origin,College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology,Dalian 116024,China) (2012). Research progress in active ingredients and pharmacological effects of deer antler Chinese Journal

[1] https://docs.google.com/file/d/1onyP9f0Utt2G3bm-cUnYKlH62U7zCYBYk5CHxeV7mn0TYYS0E1euK2cjp5W-/edit?usp=sharing
[2]http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/article00601.html
[3]http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/282432?uid=3739920&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101938183907

[4] Schilström, B., Ivanov, V., Wiker, C., & Svensson, T. (2006). Galantamine Enhances Dopaminergic Neurotransmission In Vivo Via Allosteric Potentiation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Neuropsychopharmacology, 32 (1), 43-53 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301087

[5]http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=is-there-a-difference-between-the-brain
[6]http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00114-012-0942-0
[7]http://archaeology.about.com/od/gterms/qt/Geissenklosterle-Germany.htm
[8]https://docs.google.com/file/d/1Mh_I7Td9jg0VZJkN41V8Wz9bDYqzaPEV7I63J-qM513l1z2NuJoYsXNTBPuC/edit?usp=sharing
[9]https://docs.google.com/file/d/1QgLRr4cNLMG3WMOopzhS0OiN9iAgFK_KQ8ktlZrArWVyd7s9y7aD41pRpHDc/edit?usp=sharing

Extra Links:
Evidence for (flute) sexuality
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-HLJX201203011.htm
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZYXN201003018.htm
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZYXY200905002.htm
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-XQYI201106038.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15709389
http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-REST201104023.htm
///
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4111360.stm (sock and sex)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347283712728(orgasm)
///
Galantamine(memory of religion)
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/321/3/1179.short
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20680514
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2175417/The-real-Neanderthal-diet-Researchers-shed-new-light-early-mans-diet--turns-ate-greens-knew-use-plants-medicine.html
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fr%C3%BChlings-Knotenblume
///
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_music
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_prehistory
http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/boneflutes.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fossil_sites
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_evolution_fossils
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_art
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_height
http://www.historyofinformation.com/
http://anthropology.net/2008/11/04/a-12000-year-old-shaman-from-hilazon-tachtit-israel-the-emergence-of-relgion/
http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_2.htm
http://paleo.revues.org/1504 (evidence for cannibalistic behavior at brillenhohle)


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12.15.2012

Why Piracetam doesn't Work for some people

     Piracetam (this includes all racetams) needs additional supplements to be fully effective.[1] Even in the scientific community, people used to be confused of its mechanism of action. Now we have research that hasn't been discussed that will help us add additional supplements to increase its effects.

Mechanism
     Piracetam works via AMPA receptors (mainly). AMPA receptors need the adrenal glands for signal transmission.[2] This means piracetam can be enhanced (or actually made "work") by things that also simulate adrenal function. Adrenal stimulation is why people often load piracetam until they see benefits.

     The adrenal glands influence the brain in a way to release more glutamate in the brain via potassium(simplified). This glutamate is great for memory but eventually degrades into gaba.[4] Gaba is a chemical that will lead to lowered memory. Gaba release is why people feel less anxiety from taking piracetam.
Flickr @ zimpenfish

Piracetam's Side effects
     The side effects of piracetam are very serious, and also common among people who report it to be working. These side effects are not permanent nor are they reported to be toxic/dangerous. These side effects come from two different mechanisms.

     Since piracetam works by activating AMPA receptors it can cause lowered adrenal gland function. This "adrenal fatigue" is reported all of the time despite all of the safety this compound has been said to have.

    Piracetam also can cause anxiety after prolonged use. This is due to its anxiolytic effect. This anxiety is most likely the cause of the aforementioned adrenal fatigue. People usually take cycles of piracetam to combat this, but for some it doesn't prevent side effects.

How to make Piracetam Work
     Piracetam often doesn't work for people because their adrenals are less sensitive to stimulation or their body/brain is in a disease state. Adrenal support supplements will synergize and make piracetam work correctly. Pregnenolone works as a precursor to adrenal function.

     Rats given choline and piracetam have better memory than just choline groups and just piracetam groups. Studies have shown that piracetam raises choline levels as much as 88% even without choline intake.[5] Piracetam alone lowers acetylcholine by about 18% (not good). ALCAR would counteract the lowered acetylcholine levels.

Click to see the image
    Humans have a diet that includes choline, so choline might not be neccesary, but ALCAR is something that would be necessary.

    Often people get headaches when taking ALCAR because their choline/acetyl levels are imbalanced. If that is the case, you must take choline aswell, but youll have to work with your personal dosage.

     Large doses of piracetam affect people in a similar way as a medium dose (bell shaped curve) because the glutamate is being converted into gaba (Glutamate decarboxylase).

     If you block the gaba then you will see only benefits from larger doses of piracetam. Dihydromyricetin in a safe dose will help bring out the benefits.

    I've had good experiences with vaping piracetam. The effects seem to work better,faster, and more efficiently. I would make sure your batch is free of toxins and dont vaporize the other natural compounds in this stack. I wouldn't recommend smoking anything.

Ingredients: (Doses are on picture)
Piracetam (or nootpept)
ALCAR
Choline
Dihydromyricetin (or other natural gaba antagonist)
Pregnenolone (or other natural adrenal support)

Synergistics: 
Uridine
MCT Oil
Unsweetened Cocoa

Do Nots:
Caution L-theanine (or tea) intake with piracetam as it inhibits some effects from piracetam. L-theanine is a partial inhibitor of AMPA receptors.
Do not just drink enough water to swallow the pill, drink a whole cup due to piracetams water soluble properties.
Do not drink milk with piracetam, not enough is known whether milk blocks absorption so id reccomend just drinking 45 minutes later or more.

*Warning* Remove the dihydromyricetin dose if you are sensitive to gaba (have seizures) or if you take other gaba antagonists for example, pregnenolone is a gaba agonist but pregnenolone sulfate is a gaba antagonist. Always ask your doctor before you try any supplements.


Links
Samartgis JR, Schachte L, Hazi A, & Crowe SF (2012). Piracetam, an AMPAkine drug, facilitates memory consolidation in the day-old chick. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 103 (2), 353-8 PMID: 22940587

2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820185
3 http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/3002398/reload=0;jsessionid=IbgTP8TjZpsOs7Myx9wJ.10
4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_decarboxylase
5 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0197458081900075
6 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166432889800981
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